that workers should not be punished in cases where their employers fail to enrol them in Shakai Hoken/Shigaku Kyosai. Immigration thought that the union was there asking for leniency in following the health and pension insurance laws; but in reality the union was asking for a crack down on employers that are putting our members’ visas, health, and future at risk. What was learned very quickly by our conversation was that immigration has not had any clear direction from the Ministry of Justice on how to treat this issue now that it is part of the visa renewal guidelines. We are concerned that it will be up to the individual immigration officers to decide, thus leaving the system open to abuse and unequal treatment. Another grave concern is that even though we believe that immigration will accept an application without proof of health insur-ance, our fear is that immigration will require foreign workers to return to the office with a ‘valid’ health insurance card in order to get visa renewal approval. One thing has become terribly clear: the debate on whether Shakai Hoken/Shigaku Kyosai is good or not is finished. The only thing left to discuss now is whether workers will pay 100% of health and pension costs or 50% by demanding proper enrolment in Shakai Hoken/Shigaku Kyosai.